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Friday, September 10, 2021

Harvest and Defoliation

Howdy,

We are harvesting cotton, and I am happy to see module trucks rolling and gins running.

The 6 and 11 days after treatment (DAT) ratings for the cotton harvest aid study for Wharton, Texas are below. The initial treatment was made on August 20, and the second on September 2, 2021. The cotton harvest aid study for this site was conducted on a field of Phytogen 332 planted on March 21, 2021. If you are having trouble viewing the results, a larger version can be found here.

Defoliation Test Plot
Kate Crumley



2021 Cotton Harvest Aid Trial- Wharton County

Cooperator: Josh Marek

Kate Crumley, Extension Agent IPM- Wharton, Jackson, Matagorda Counties

Corrie Bowen, County Extension Agent, AG/NR Wharton County

Dr. Benjamin McKnight, State Extension Cotton Specialist

Dale Mott, Extension Program Specialist

Cotton variety is Phytogen 332 W3FE, planted on March 21, 2021

First application (App Timing A) was made on August 20, 2021. Ratings were taken on August 26, 2021.

Second application (App Timing B) was made on August 26, 2021. Ratings were taken on September 1, 2021



Trade names of commercial products used in this report are included only for better understanding and clarity. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Texas A&M Agrilife Extension Service and the Texas A&M University System is implied. Readers should realize that results from one experiment do not represent conclusive evidence that the same response would occur where conditions vary.


For more information, here are links to a defoliation guide from the Texas Row Crop Newsletter, the 2019 Mid South Defoliation Guide, and the Wharton county defoliation test results from 2017. As always, if you have any questions feel free to call or send me an email. Have a good weekend, everyone!


Kate

Friday, September 3, 2021

Cotton Harvest Aid Trial and Defoliation

Howdy,

I've included the 6 and 11 days after treatment (DAT) ratings for the cotton harvest aid study for Wharton, Texas. The initial treatment was made on August 20, and the second on September 2, 2021. The cotton harvest aid study for this site was conducted on a field of Phytogen 332 planted on March 21, 2021. If you are having trouble viewing the results, a larger version can be found here.

Defoliation Test Plot
Kate Crumley



2021 Cotton Harvest Aid Trial- Wharton County

Cooperator: Josh Marek

Kate Crumley, Extension Agent IPM- Wharton, Jackson, Matagorda Counties

Corrie Bowen, County Extension Agent, AG/NR Wharton County

Dr. Benjamin McKnight, State Extension Cotton Specialist

Dale Mott, Extension Program Specialist

Cotton variety is Phytogen 332 W3FE, planted on March 21, 2021

First application (App Timing A) was made on August 20, 2021. Ratings were taken on August 26, 2021.

Second application (App Timing B) was made on August 26, 2021. Ratings were taken on September 1, 2021



Trade names of commercial products used in this report are included only for better understanding and clarity. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Texas A&M Agrilife Extension Service and the Texas A&M University System is implied. Readers should realize that results from one experiment do not represent conclusive evidence that the same response would occur where conditions vary.


For more information, here are links to a defoliation guide from the Texas Row Crop Newsletter, the 2019 Mid South Defoliation Guide, and the Wharton county defoliation test results from 2017. As always, if you have any questions feel free to call or send me an email. Have a wonderful labor day weekend, and happy harvesting, everyone!


Kate

Monday, August 30, 2021

6 DAT 2021 Cotton Harvest Aid Trial Results


Spraying the 2021 Defoliation Test
Kate Crumley

Howdy,

I've included the 6 days after treatment (DAT) ratings for the cotton harvest aid study that was treated on August 20, 2021 in Wharton, Texas. The test plot is located at (29.292813, -96.168313), off CR 961 near the Wharton fairgrounds, if you would like to stop by. Ratings for 6 DAT were taken on August 26, 2021, prior to the second treatment. Ratings will be taken again at 12 days after the initial treatment. The cotton harvest aid study for this site was conducted on a field of Phytogen 332 W3FE. There is a printable version of this table available at our county websiteAs always, if you have any questions, feel free to send an email or give me a call if you have any questions or concerns.2021 Cotton Harvest Aid Trial- Wharton County

Cooperator: Josh Marek

Kate Crumley, Extension Agent IPM- Wharton, Jackson, Matagorda Counties

Corrie Bowen, County Extension Agent, AG/NR Wharton County

Dr. Benjamin McKnight, State Extension Cotton Specialist

Dale Mott, Extension Program Specialist

The first application (App Timing A) was made on August 20, 2021. 6 DAT ratings were taken on August 26, 2021.

The second application (App Timing B) was made on August 26, 2021.



Trade names of commercial products used in this report are included only for better understanding and clarity. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Texas A&M Agrilife Extension Service and the Texas A&M University System is implied. Readers should realize that results from one experiment do not represent conclusive evidence that the same response would occur where conditions vary.


Friday, August 27, 2021

Defoliation

Open Cotton
Kate Crumley

Howdy,

Our season is rapidly wrapping up, most of the grain is out of the field, and I've seen some soybeans harvested. We've started defoliating and picking cotton as well.

Defoliation is usually recommended at over 60% open bolls, or 4 nodes above cracked boll. We have a defoliation trial set up this year, I will add the results for that test next week.




Friday, August 20, 2021

Defoliation Guides

Open Cotton
Kate Crumley

Howdy,

Our season is rapidly wrapping up, most of the grain is out of the field, and I've seen some soybeans harvested this week as well.

Most of our cotton is opening up, and even our latest fields should be opening next week. We are a good ways past cutout, and past susceptibility to any insect damage in almost all locations. There are very few fields still susceptible to stink bug damage. I've seen a couple fields defoliated this week, and next week I expect to see a good deal more ready for defoliation.

Defoliation is usually recommended at over 60% open bolls, or 4 nodes above cracked boll. For more information, here are links to a defoliation guide from the Texas Row Crop Newsletter, the 2019 Mid South Defoliation Guide, and the Wharton county defoliation test results from 2017.

Cutout occurs when carbohydrate supply equals demand, and vegetative growth ceases. When the plant reaches cutout, no more harvestable fruit is set. This is normally at 4 to 5 NAWF. Cotton is no longer susceptible to economic damage by plant bugs and bollworms at 350 degree days (DD60), or heat units, past cutout, and is no longer susceptible to economic damage from stink bugs at 450 DD60 past cutout. Bolls that will reach maturity by harvest will be too hard for the respective pests to feed on at this stage.

The fields I check are no longer at risk for damage from bollworms and stink bugs. If we are finding any plant bugs, they're mostly brown and green stink bugs, some leaf-footed bugs, lygus bugs, and tarnished plant bugs. These are all below threshold, or like most of our fields, in places that are no longer susceptible to damage.

Evidence of Sucking Insect Damage on Cotton Boll
Kate Crumley

When scouting for stink bugs, check the inside of the bolls for warts, lesions, and stained lint. Above is a photo of a boll with potential stink bug feeding damage from the outside, note the slightly raised look of the dark spots. Be sure to open the bolls to confirm it is damaged, other sucking plant bugs may be unable to get through the carpal walls, and the inside will be clean. The economic threshold can be found below, depending on how long the field has been blooming. It is based on the percent damaged bolls with live bugs present. This year we've mostly seen brown stink bugs in cotton so far, and some of the brown stink bug populations in our area have been shown to have some resistance to pyrethroids. We can stop scouting for plant bugs at 350 DD60 past cutout, and stink bugs at 450 DD60.




Green Stink Bug adult
Photo: Kate Crumley

Carpal Wall Warts from Stink Bug Feeding Damage
Photo: Kate Crumley

If you've got soybeans, we need to be scouting for stink bugs right now. The red banded stink bug thresholds are now 4 bugs per 25 sweeps for R2-R6, and 10 bugs per 25 sweeps for R6.5-R7, unless we have rainy and humid conditions, then we should continue checking through R8The threshold for red-shouldered, brown, green, and southern green stink bugs is 9 bugs per 25 sweeps for R2-R6, and 20-25 sweeps after R6, and we can stop checking at R6.5. Since color can vary on stink bugs, the best way to check if you are unsure if you are finding red banded stink bugs is by looking at the underneath of the insect. A red banded stink bug has a large spine just below the legs, green stink bug has a short one, and the other species do not have a spine at all. I've seen mostly brown stink bugs, but some of the consultants I've spoken to have picked up greens and red banded stink bugs as well. The red banded stink bugs hit several of our fields late last summer, and we need to stay vigilant checking for those in our soybeans until R8.

Red Banded Stink Bug, showing ventral spine
David Kerns

Green Stink Bug, showing short spine
David Kerns


Check out our weekly IPM Audio Updates, the link is below. As always, if you have any questions feel free to contact me either by email or calling the office. Have a good weekend everyone!

Check out our weekly IPM Audio Updates

2017 Wharton County Defoliation Test




Friday, August 13, 2021

Open Cotton and Defoliation Guides

Open Cotton
Kate Crumley

Howdy,

Our grain crops are mostly out of the field. There are spots we've been delayed by rain, but for the most part we are wrapping up grain harvest. Sorghum yields have mostly been poor due to sprouting and the wet conditions we had earlier, but our corn yields have mostly been fair to good.

This week most of our cotton is opening up, and even our latest fields should be opening next week. We are a good ways past cutout, and past susceptibility to any insect damage in almost all locations. There are very few fields still susceptible to stink bug damage. We will start defoliation next week.

Defoliation is usually recommended at over 60% open bolls, or 4 nodes above cracked boll. For more information, here are links to a defoliation guide from the Texas Row Crop Newsletter, the 2019 Mid South Defoliation Guide, and the Wharton county defoliation test results from 2017.

Cutout occurs when carbohydrate supply equals demand, and vegetative growth ceases. When the plant reaches cutout, no more harvestable fruit is set. This is normally at 4 to 5 NAWF. Cotton is no longer susceptible to economic damage by plant bugs and bollworms at 350 degree days (DD60), or heat units, past cutout, and is no longer susceptible to economic damage from stink bugs at 450 DD60 past cutout. Bolls that will reach maturity by harvest will be too hard for the respective pests to feed on at this stage.

The fields I check are no longer at risk for damage from bollworms and stink bugs. If we are finding any plant bugs, they're mostly brown and green stink bugs, some leaf-footed bugs, lygus bugs, and tarnished plant bugs. These are all below threshold, or like most of our fields, in places that are no longer susceptible to damage.

Evidence of Sucking Insect Damage on Cotton Boll
Kate Crumley

When scouting for stink bugs, check the inside of the bolls for warts, lesions, and stained lint. Above is a photo of a boll with potential stink bug feeding damage from the outside, note the slightly raised look of the dark spots. Be sure to open the bolls to confirm it is damaged, other sucking plant bugs may be unable to get through the carpal walls, and the inside will be clean. The economic threshold can be found below, depending on how long the field has been blooming. It is based on the percent damaged bolls with live bugs present. This year we've mostly seen brown stink bugs in cotton so far, and some of the brown stink bug populations in our area have been shown to have some resistance to pyrethroids. We can stop scouting for plant bugs at 350 DD60 past cutout, and stink bugs at 450 DD60.




Green Stink Bug adult
Photo: Kate Crumley

Carpal Wall Warts from Stink Bug Feeding Damage
Photo: Kate Crumley

If you've got soybeans, we need to be scouting for stink bugs right now. The red banded stink bug thresholds are now 4 bugs per 25 sweeps for R2-R6, and 10 bugs per 25 sweeps for R6.5-R7, unless we have rainy and humid conditions, then we should continue checking through R8The threshold for red-shouldered, brown, green, and southern green stink bugs is 9 bugs per 25 sweeps for R2-R6, and 20-25 sweeps after R6, and we can stop checking at R6.5. Since color can vary on stink bugs, the best way to check if you are unsure if you are finding red banded stink bugs is by looking at the underneath of the insect. A red banded stink bug has a large spine just below the legs, green stink bug has a short one, and the other species do not have a spine at all. I've seen mostly brown stink bugs, but some of the consultants I've spoken to have picked up greens and red banded stink bugs as well. The red banded stink bugs hit several of our fields late last summer, and we need to stay vigilant checking for those in our soybeans until R8.

Red Banded Stink Bug, showing ventral spine
David Kerns

Green Stink Bug, showing short spine
David Kerns

Our office is still getting calls on fall armyworms in pasture and hay. Fall armyworms are at treatable levels in pasture and hay fields at 2-3 worms 1/2 an inch long or larger per square foot. You can apply pyrethroids to control caterpillars, and these will work within 2-3 days, but they also have a very short residual control period. You can add a diflubenzuron (Dimilin) to a pyrethroid to extend the residual to 10-12 days. Methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) is another product available, and it can provide up to 7 days residual control.  However, these options are not rainfast, and will lose effect if rained on. Products containing chlorantraniliprole (Prevathon, Vantacor, Besiege, Elevest) are rainfast at about 2 hours after application, since they are absorbed by the plant. These are more expensive products, but will provide longer residual control. For example, a 20 oz application with Prevathon will provide 20-21 days of control. As always, when selecting and making pesticide applications, read the label before making a decision.

There have also been some questions recently on bermudagrass stem maggots. We saw this species last year as well, and one of my ag agents put together a publication on those covering their biology and control options. Check out the publication here if you have questions on those.

Check out our weekly IPM Audio Updates, the link is below. As always, if you have any questions feel free to contact me either by email or calling the office. Have a good weekend everyone!

Check out our weekly IPM Audio Updates

2017 Wharton County Defoliation Test




Friday, August 6, 2021

Open Bolls and Stink Bugs

Open Cotton
Ben Crumley

Howdy,

Our grain crops are mostly out of the field. There are spots we've been delayed by rain, but for the most part combines are running and we are getting corn and sorghum out of the field. Sorghum yields have mostly been poor due to sprouting and the wet conditions we had earlier, but our corn yields have mostly been fair to good.

This week most of our cotton is starting to crack, bloomed out, or around 2-5 nodes above white flower (NAWF), and our later replanted cotton is at or just past cutout. Cutout occurs when carbohydrate supply equals demand, and vegetative growth ceases. When the plant reaches cutout, no more harvestable fruit is set. This is normally at 4 to 5 NAWF. I've included heat unit charts below to help with spray decisions for our insect pests our fields reach cutout. Temperature data for each county location is based on a field close to the center of each county. Cotton is no longer susceptible to economic damage by plant bugs and bollworms at 350 degree days (DD60), or heat units, past cutout, and is no longer susceptible to economic damage from stink bugs at 450 DD60 past cutout. Bolls that will reach maturity by harvest will be too hard for the respective pests to feed on at this stage.

The fields I check are almost all out of risk of damage by bollworms and stink bugs, we have one still susceptible to bollworms, and two to stink bugs. We're still mostly seeing brown stink bugs if we find any, but we are seeing some green stink bugs, leaf-footed bugs, lygus bugs, and tarnished plant bugs, all below threshold or in places that are no longer susceptible to damage. This week's scouting results are below. Fields marked in black are no longer susceptible to damage from that pest.




Helicoverpa zea is our cotton bollworm and corn earworm. These are caterpillars that feed on multiple crops and vegetables. In cotton they feed on squares and bolls, causing fruit loss. The last few years we had high numbers of this insect in our Bt cotton. As the corn matures, the next generation of bollworm eggs will be laid in cotton. I start looking for bollworm eggs in cotton when that field starts blooming. We are finding a few larvae now, but our survivorship in cotton has been low compared to previous years.

Small H. zea Larva on a Cotton Boll
Kate Crumley

Large H. zea Larva
Kate Crumley

Our scouting guide recommends checking in the top 1/3 of the plant, but it's important to also pull bolls and flowers from lower to check as well. Egg lay has been occurring low in the plant as well, and it's not uncommon to find small larvae or eggs in flowers and bloom tags. We also have seen small larvae feeding and entering bolls either on the very tip of the boll, or along the seams of the bolls. This makes the entry wounds more difficult to find, but the damage is easy to see if you pop open the bolls.
Our Bt traits overlap across corn and cotton. If the caterpillars survive the traits on corn then as adults fly to cotton to lay eggs, it's likely their offspring will survive the same traits on cotton. The chart above shows the overlap of Bt traits between crops and technologies.

H. zea Eggs on Cotton
Kate Crumley

To scout for cotton bollworms I use the terminal and square inspection method. I make about four stops in a field, more if the field is larger than 100 acres. At each stop, I look at 25 plants, checking the entire plant, including blooms and under bloom tags, for caterpillars and eggs. I also pull 25 half grown or larger green squares to bolls and look for bollworm damage. When documenting egg lay, if I find more than one on a leaf, I only count it as one. This caterpillar is highly cannibalistic, and generally only one caterpillar will result from eggs too near each other. The economic threshold for bollworms is 6% damaged bolls with live caterpillars present. In areas like ours on the upper gulf coast with documented Bt failures, the threshold for eggs on single and dual gene cotton is 20% (20 plants out of 100 with at least one egg)We can stop scouting for bollworms at 350 DD60. Bolls with slight dark indentations like the photo below could be chewing damage from bollworms. Look closely at dark spots to see what they're from. Early superficial damage like the photo below is unlikely to cause fruit drop, but if the caterpillars survive or get through the carpal walls, it can quickly become a problem.

Chewing Damage on Cotton Boll
Kate Crumley

Evidence of Sucking Insect Damage on Cotton Boll
Kate Crumley

When scouting for stink bugs, check the inside of the bolls for warts, lesions, and stained lint. Above is a photo of a boll with potential stink bug feeding damage from the outside, note the slightly raised look of the dark spots. Be sure to open the bolls to confirm it is damaged, other sucking plant bugs may be unable to get through the carpal walls, and the inside will be clean. The economic threshold can be found below, depending on how long the field has been blooming. It is based on the percent damaged bolls with live bugs present. This year we've mostly seen brown stink bugs in cotton so far, and some of the brown stink bug populations in our area have been shown to have some resistance to pyrethroids. We can stop scouting for plant bugs at 350 DD60 past cutout, and stink bugs at 450 DD60.




Green Stink Bug adult
Photo: Kate Crumley

Carpal Wall Warts from Stink Bug Feeding Damage
Photo: Kate Crumley

If you've got soybeans, we need to be scouting for stink bugs right now. The red banded stink bug thresholds are now 4 bugs per 25 sweeps for R2-R6, and 10 bugs per 25 sweeps for R6.5-R7, unless we have rainy and humid conditions, then we should continue checking through R8The threshold for red-shouldered, brown, green, and southern green stink bugs is 9 bugs per 25 sweeps for R2-R6, and 20-25 sweeps after R6, and we can stop checking at R6.5. Since color can vary on stink bugs, the best way to check if you are unsure if you are finding red banded stink bugs is by looking at the underneath of the insect. A red banded stink bug has a large spine just below the legs, green stink bug has a short one, and the other species do not have a spine at all. I've seen mostly brown stink bugs, but some of the consultants I've spoken to have picked up greens and red banded stink bugs as well.

Red Banded Stink Bug, showing ventral spine
David Kerns

Green Stink Bug, showing short spine
David Kerns

Soybean Looper

If you've got later planted soybeans, they can handle 30-35% defoliation prior to bloom, but most of our beans are farther along. During bloom and pod set, defoliation should not exceed 20-25%. The threshold for caterpillars in soybeans is 300 worms per 100 sweeps, but count soybean loopers as 2 worms if they're present. 

Our office is still getting calls on fall armyworms in pasture and hay. Fall armyworms are at treatable levels in pasture and hay fields at 2-3 worms 1/2 an inch long or larger per square foot. You can apply pyrethroids to control caterpillars, and these will work within 2-3 days, but they also have a very short residual control period. You can add a diflubenzuron (Dimilin) to a pyrethroid to extend the residual to 10-12 days. Methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) is another product available, and it can provide up to 7 days residual control.  However, these options are not rainfast, and will lose effect if rained on. Products containing chlorantraniliprole (Prevathon, Vantacor, Besiege, Elevest) are rainfast at about 2 hours after application, since they are absorbed by the plant. These are more expensive products, but will provide longer residual control. For example, a 20 oz application with Prevathon will provide 20-21 days of control. As always, when selecting and making pesticide applications, read the label before making a decision.

There have also been some questions recently on bermudagrass stem maggots. We saw this species last year as well, and one of my ag agents put together a publication on those covering their biology and control options. Check out the publication here if you have questions on those.

Check out our weekly IPM Audio Updates, the link is below. As always, if you have any questions feel free to contact me either by email or calling the office. Have a good weekend everyone!

Check out our weekly IPM Audio Updates

PGR Management Considerations

Plant Growth Regulators as Tools for Challenges

Cotton Insect Management Guide

Development and Growth Monitoring of the Cotton Plant